Community health and social care in Ireland isn't meeting population demands.
A new ESRI report examines the supply of non-acute services, such as GPs, counsellors and home-care hours.
It finds supply is worst in the greater Dublin area, including Kildare and the south-east.
The report also notes that Kildare has just 4 GPs for every 1,000 people.
But the ESRI's Brendan Walsh says that may not mean patients in Connacht and Munster are better off.